Harbour Management Plan


1 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) -National designation

Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (amended 1985) English Nature (EN) and the Countryside Council for Wales (CCW) have a duty to notify as an SSSI any land which in their opinion is of special interest by reason of any of its flora, fauna, geological or physiographical features.

2 Ramsar Site -World wide designation of wetlands

These sites are protected under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, first drafted at Ramsar, Iran in 1971, and ratified by the UK Government in 1976. The Ramsar Convention aims to conserve wetlands and promote their sustainable use. Wetland sites are important habitats for many types of bird, particularly waterfowl, but may also be of value for their plant communities, invertebrates and other animal populations. Wetland sites are under threat from agricultural drainage, pressure for industrial and commercial development, and demands for water sports and other recreation. All Ramsar sites are also SSSIs.

3 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) - European designation

The EC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC) requires member states to safeguard the habitats of migratory birds and certain particularly threatened birds. Under the Directive, the UK is committed to taking "the requisite measures to preserve, maintain and re-establish a sufficient diversity and areas of habitat" for "all species of naturally occurring birds in the wild state". This includes the designation of SPAs.

4 Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) - European designation

The EC Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) agreed at the Environment Council in December was adopted in May 1992. It will give rise to the designation of Special Areas of Conservation. These areas are to be protected for the purpose of conserving Europe's rarest flora and fauna species and habitat type; and may be designated both on land and at sea. Most are likely to be drawn from the existing SSSI network. The Natura 2000 network also includes SACs (see 5 below).

5 Natura 2000

The Natura 2000 network of protected sites will consist of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) designated under the Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/EEC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) designated under the Birds Directive (Directive 79/409/EEC). Together these measures aim to maintain or restore the extent and quality of rare habitat types and to ensure that rare species can survive and maintain their populations and natural range on a long-term basis. The Habitats Directive has been implemented in Great Britain by the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c) Regulations 1994. The Directive requires all Natura 2000 areas to be protected from deterioration or damage

6 National Nature Reserves (NNRs) - National designation

Sections 16 to 29 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 enables the Nature Conservancy Council, now English Nature, and the Countryside Council for Wales to establish Nature Reserves. These provisions were strengthened by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. NNRs are areas of national and sometimes international importance for Nature Conservation which are owned, leased or managed by English Nature, the Countryside Council for Wales or a body approved by them, or managed in accordance with nature reserve agreements with landowners and occupiers.

7 Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) - National designation

AONBs are created by the Countryside Commission, now Countryside Agency, under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Their purpose is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the area. An AONB is not a statutory authority in its own right but is a partnership of statutory authorities.

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